The best part about an online magazine, is that they send you emails only if you want them. And in the case of Saveur, I get tasty recipes to try on a regular basis. Last week, a number of recipes for a Summer Vegetarian Feast filled my email inbox. One was a delicious leek and zucchini galette, combining great flavor and seasonality.
There are leeks growing alongside my onions in some fields. Some of the growers I work with have a few different Allium species growing including garlic and leek. These crops could be subject to leek moth infestation, but leek moth is currently only known in certain areas of New York and Canada (in North America). An invasive species from Europe, leek moth, Acrolepiopsis assectella, is a small, brown to black moth with yellow-green caterpillars. The pupae are small cocoons with a distinct lacy casing.
Adult Leek Moth courtesy of AgroAtlas
Leek moth pupal casing
Leek moth damage include mining and perforations in the leaf, with window-paning damage where the caterpillar has not eaten all the way through all layers of the leaf tissue.
Leek moth damage
While there are no chemical treatments yet in New York, cultural treatments such as crop rotation, row covers, and removing vegetative debris at the end of the season are recommended. In Canada, a parasitoid wasp Diadromus pulchellus was released as a biological control agent as part of an integrated pest management approach to control leek moth. Perhaps that may be an option for leek moth control here as well.
Until last weekend, I had never seen a firefly (except for the television show by Joss Whedon). Geographic location, time of year, weather, all these things had simply not aligned to allow me to experience the magical wonder of a firefly show.
Fireflies, or lightning bugs, are not actually flies or true bugs. They’re actually beetles in the family Lampyridae. This looks like the little critter that I caught over the weekend, as fireworks were flying overhead. In unprepared entomologist fashion, I stuck it in an empty Mentos gum container since I didn’t have a vial. You could see the glow through the plastic even though it wasn’t see through.
Photo Courtesy of Cirrus Images
The glow, or bioluminescence, is the result of a chemical reaction in the abdomen of the beetle. The color can vary along a spectrum from yellow to green to pale red. Both males and females flash in a call and response type of mate selection. Species specific flash patterns and durations allow females to distinguish their gentlemen callers and respond only to their species. In the case of Photuris species however, females mimic another species response to lure the males as prey. The poor little guys, I’m sure they thought everything was just shiny.
Photo courtesy of Beneficialbugs.org
Last week I went on a field trip to visit some orchards and we found one of these guys.
Photo courtesy of Cirrus Image
The “Eyed Click Beetle” or Alaus oculatus is in the family Elateridae. The common name of this groups is from the clicking mechanism that beetles use as a defense or to simply right themselves. See the video below!
If you haven’t seen this yet…
When you take time to smell the flowers, or rather peer at the onions, you find some pretty cool stuff. This week, Simon shared with me another little gem of nature: parasitized natural enemies. Just a reminder, parasitoids develop internally on their host, usually killing it. This particular case of parasitism, however, is atypical in that the host does not die
Image courtesy of Maure et al. 2011
The victim of the story is the common Pink Lady Beetle, Coleomegilla maculata, affectionately called C-mac in some circles. C. maculata is a generalist predator, feeding on aphid species and other small soft bodied insects. I’m not surprised to see many of them in the onion fields. In this case, a parasitic wasp, Dinocampus coccinellae, lays a single egg inside its beetle host. Rather than killing the host, the wasp larva emerges and spins its pupal casing around the legs of the ladybug, keeping it in place. Thereby, providing its own bodyguard to protect it from predation and hyperparasitism (parasitoids that parasitize other parasitoids…that’s a lot of parasitism). This article was just published online about the system. Pretty cool!
Image courtesy of Stippen.nl